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I spent countless hours reviewing 1000s deeds from MSP (Minneapolis/St Paul) through a local project to determine which ones had raced based exclusionary language. The deeds covered the period pre-1956 ish. Even post Kraemer, deeds continued to have explicit restrictive covenants.

The present day claim is the exclusions are not enforceable and so there is no need to look back because a measure of equality was bestowed unto the discriminated groups. What is little discussed outside of academia is the euro white neighborhoods became wealthier as a result of the segregated policies and families were able to pass down their wealth onto subsequent generations. African Americans missed the opportunity to move into these euro white enclaves because few could afford the necessary capital.

Like in so many areas, euro whites deliberately create an uneven playing field to start from. Unfortunately for African Americans and Africans around the world, euro white supremacy is not going to ever fully accept equality. The lopsided bennies are too good.

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